South African oral performance poetry of the 1980s: Mzwakhe Mbuli and Alfred Qabula. New wine in old bottles: imagery in the izibongo of the Zulu Zionist prophet, Isaiah Shembe. 1990. the individual performers from the ruler's revenge,16 poetic licence includes the principle of a plurality of speakers and thus of various 'visions'17 of society being proclaimed. ALFRED CELL (1992: 52), 1369-681 5/98/0201 71-26 O 1998 Editors of Jourrtal of Africarz Cultural Studies. Consequently, from an analysis and discussion of izibongoas a flexible tradition of formalized, poetical speech linked to reasonable principles, it follows that 'traditional authority' itself should not, as has been argued, be understood per se as static and fixed (cf. Bloch, M. 1975. What I call socio-regulative commitment refers to the basic normative principle irlvolved in the aesthetic formation: 'a language with the authority to transcend the particular in the interests of justice or truth' is. The much appreciated harmony in sound-features is easily achieved since it involves the relatively simple act of 'personalizing' things or actions by changing the prefix of the word to the noun-class of the subject of the sentence. Parkin, D. 1984. If society itself is constituted by 'a discourse within which speech both liberates and enslaves' (Parkin 1984: 348), izibongo are an adequate art form to both depict and intensify such a discourse. Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Life of Shaka Zulu 543 Words Bartleby. 1-20. basic right in south-east African societies. Tambiah 1985).This is confirmed in that the main principle of poetic licence, that 'it is not the performer that is licensed but the performance' (White 1989: 36; Vail & White 1991: 57), can also be applied to the conception of licence in ritual. Izibongo: Zulu praise-poems. In fact, quite the opposite is the case: since a prescribed inverse action is required of the subjects, the ritually enacted protest is actually a symbolic statement of consent to the current ruler as well as to the principle of good rulership. London: NLB. oppressive on Zulu women. Power and the Praise Poem: Southeri~ African Voices in History. Songs of innocence and experience: women as composers and performers of izibongo, Zulu praise poetry. Fortune , 'Frames for compariso n and contrast i Shona poetry' Limi (1977) V 67-74 8 See , o n Tswana I. Schapera (ed.) With increased knowledge about the complexity of aesthetics in oral art, research on African literature has surpassed the initial stage of merely collecting political aspects as part of the 'background' information (cf. The term izibongois derived from the verb bonga which means mainly 'to praise,' and also 'to thank,' 'to worship' (Grant 1937: 85; Rycroft & Ngcobo 1988: 12), as well as 'to give clan name or kinship. Smith Pierre. 1961. Harlow: Longman. turning potential into specific meaning, can never be precluded from the outset. 55s. Knowledge remains confined to the two levels of the descriptive and the normative, but two competing modes of evaluative language can be used on the latter level in order to approach and make claims for 'the just': ideological speech and reasonable speech. In Lerlin and Philosophy and otlzer essays, idem, pp. Thirty years later it can be said that izibongohave retained their status of mediating political power in form of praise and criticism. D.P. While it is often considered to be poetry of praise, Jeff Opland and others consider the term "praise" (for "bonga") to be too limiting, since it can contain criticism also.. Subject matter. Mzamane, M.V. PRAISE-POEMS, by T. Cope and MUSHO! This signifies a 'frailty in authority' (1959: 28) in centralized societies like the Zulu. Krige, E. 1936. R. Fardon, pp. In recent years political leaders have become … 24 Both foci of power, 'chief' and 'party leader' have often been present in personal union (e.g. The Zulu people. However, within the political discourse of the Zulu and other South African communities, the genre of izibongocontinued to be of central value; in contrast to the rituals of rebellion it did not vanish but was reapplied to the altered political field. Post navigation . Amsterdam: van Gorcum. Therefore, a central task of this paper is to evolve a model of the political discourse in a society from within art, namely the specific form of art that izibongoconstitute. Zulu praise poems. -. Traditional authority, like the concept of tradition itself, is never per se static, fixed, or irrational, even in a ruler-centred society like the Zulu. Bauman, R. and Ch. Nairobi: Bookwise. In this way, it often leads to a dramatic representation of a current social incident which it publicly marks as noteworthy, and comments on it. The praises centred on the leader of the clan. In an early account, Bryant, while failing to grasp the aesthetic value of izibongo, already noted 'the extravagant freedom of speech' granted to the reciters who during the performance on festival occasions publicly raised problematic issues which 'might otherwise have been difficult to state' (Bryant 1949: 486; cf. 24-41. social commitment in public poetry. Reply. Custom and Conflict in Africa. With the general licence for poetical reconstruction and commentary of social reality a plurality of political views is admitted in principle. 1965. London: Athlone Press. We are thus concerned with a formal, procedural consensus, as an underlying, historically transmitted and reaffirmed agreement in society that the validity of specifi c social norms is, in the end, the outcome of the discursive processes on which even the ruler is dependent (while also able to influence them). 4. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. This seems undisputed. 1971. 2. 19-45. Izibongo. This notion is presented as the conceptual normative centre of a historically jlexible tradition of reasonable socio-regulative discourse, in which potentially every member of society participates. Musho! Thus, power is granted to the ruler, and rule accepted by the people only when responsibility and accountability of the ruler are assured; according to the perspective on Zulu political theory which has been followed here, the executive authority of the ruler is subject to the constitutive power of public consenus. Rebellion aims to 'attack the personnel of office and not the offices themselves,' and all protest action following this principle of attacking the ruler for the sake of rulership belongs to this category (1959: 46). The Social System of the Zulu. Evans-Pritchard and M. Fortes, pp. Reason and tradition. After the peak of military expansion a more lyrical tone re-emerged (ibid. Tltis principle, in combination with the poet's obligation (a)to paint a full and true picture of the praised and the social life involved, arzd. Les poèmes de ce recueil furent notés en zoulou au début du siècle par un magistrat, James Stuart. by V. Gorog-Karady, pp. The reference is to two treaties made by Mphande in 1843, the first with the British defining the borders of Natal and Zululand, the second with the Boers concerning territory beside the Klip River. expressed will of the people formulated by the imbongi. New York: Columbia University Press. If this paper has been able to encourage sensitivity towards this interdisciplinary field in which history, literature and anthropology are mutually dependent on one another, or to provide a reliable starting point for further theoretically interested and empirically rooted research, its purpose has been fulfilled. Mafeje 1967, Opland 1984, Kashula 1991). and A.B. 1985. In general, and definitely in the context of this paper, it points to the minimal discursive presuppositions for something like 'peaceful' social life in a specific cultural context. By showing this from within the aesthetics of izibonqo, this work may help to re-instate the concept of tradition in its original sense of 'movement, a process of transmitting which points back to an original and essential process of social creation of values,' as called for by Hountondji, who makes a point of this understanding being valid for the African context as well as anywhere else (1 983b: 139). In Lariguage attd the Politics of Etliotiott, ed. The 'political' is itself part of the aesthetics of izibongo. Izibongo of rulers are 'multivocal,' analogous to the way that the multiple applicability of symbols in a ritual context has been explained (Turner 1977). London: James Currey . Fardon, R. 1983. 1983a. With this, I intend to point out that the concept of 'consensus' itself does not necessarily imply an inherent dogmatism in society, though it does not exclude its possiblity. x230OxfordClarendon Press1968. The basis of Bantu literature. 197 1. In regard to the historical context, izibongo fulfil an essential function in conserving and transmitting social consciousness. to see whether the principle of poetic licence could actually have been seen to he valid. Gluckman, in his anthropological work on a political theory of the Zulu, appears to have overlooked the importance of izibongo. Izibonqo incorporate a meta-discourse that of a self-reflexive society on itself -into the poetical depiction of the ruler. Consequently, the role of the imbongi is the same over history. x+230. Oxford: Blackwell. 21 Gluckman for ethnographic details also drew from H. Kuper's description of such. 1984. In the southern African and specifically the Zulu context, earlier ethnographies only hinted at the political significance of izibongo (Krige 1936, Bryant 1949) or even left it aside (Gluck~nan 1940 etc.). If such metaphoric historical dramatizations of social life within izibongo 'are to continue living' and 'be saved for posterity,' they must serve a socially bound consciousness in a historical as well as literary sense (ibid. Nyembezi, C.L.S. Praise-Poertw of Ts~~atia. Zulu Tlzought Patterns and Sytnbolistn. 1948. by L. White and T. Couzens, pp. 1991. J. J. Opland (1984), Mafeje (1967), and Kashula, (1991, 1993) give exan~ples of Xhosa bards being harassed by the authorities for their. In reciting, the artist shouts out the praises at the top of his voice as fast as he can; metaphorically speaking, he tries to cast a spell on the audience with a sort of magical shower of words. Dhlomo, who called them 'the essence of our being, the meaning of our name,' and claimed that 'they can only live through us, and we through them' (1 977: 59). This kind of presentation of the praised already contains an ambiguity, central to the further analysis of the social mediative functions of izibongo of rulers: Shaka's strength, power and wilful killing can in this depiction be said to be lauded as well as indirectly criticized. Evolving out of Zulu ethnographical context, Gluckman's differentiation between ceremonial and ritual action is linked to 'mystical notions,' able to influence the outcome of events, which distinguish ritual action only. But, as we have seen that the freedonz to criticize can also be understood as an obligatiorz to do so, a similar ambiguity is possible for ritual licence. Here, the imbongi can be related to another central figure of social mediation, the isangoma,or diviner (Cope 1968: 21). The izibongo of the Zulu chiefs. The recital of the izibongo of a deceased, which are the individual praises that a person has earned or been given during lifetime, is a necessary condition -next to the sacrifice of an animal -for propitiating the ancestor (Cope 1968: 19). Everybody is given praise-names as markers of identity (already as a child), and anyone may compose such names and recite them.4 Izibongo are composed even for animals, and in particular the highly valued cattle, as well as, recently, for political organizations or football teams (Gunner & Gwala 1991: 8). The central contention of this thesis is that Zulu izibongo, that are performed and recorded at the urban-rural interface, articulate responses to the multiple discourses and structures of political and social constraint. On the other hand, a commentary on his nilership is mediated back from the people to the ruler, who in his status is traditionally dependent upon public opinion (Krige 1936: 219). Authority, then, is placed on the limits between power and reason.lg. 122-166. As an encouragement for social discourse to reflect upon these questions in connection with the specific content of what has been performed, such an appeal seems implied in the concept of poetic licertce. The use of the terms 'traditional' and ']nodern' here is, strictly speaking, misleading since there is no necessary opposition between the two. 63-64). While social identity is ceremoniously (re-)created in performance, the balance of social power is at stake. but is also enjorced by the principle of, 'poetic licence' ~vlziclt applies to most south-east African societies, granting freedom of expression to public statements made in the form of praise poetry (cfi Vail & White 1991). Introduction to Political Latzguage attd Oratory in Traditional Society, ed. This can be defined as the idea of personal rulership in accordance with social consensus, representing 'the just.' Consequently, the contextual discussion of the structure of ritual action in relation to the performance of izibongo is essential, as far as work on the political significance of both is concerned. 147- 160. Regulative issues in society are dealt with by power or by reason. In terms of verbal art, it is thus by the skill and complexity of the language used to mark the social significance of historical invocations involved -through references to earlier kings, royal ancestors, whose praises are often quoted or referred to in praises of the current ruler -that a differentiation between izibongo of the common people and those of kings, rulers and leaders reflects their difference in social life. 123-173. &$ace and basis -pe~for~nanceand political tnodcl. Freedom of perforntance? 1962. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Such 'poetic licence' is not the privilege of a specific social group, such as is constituted by the specialist izimbongi, but is granted to every subject who utters criticism in the prescribed form: 'it is not the poet who is licensed by the literary conventions of society; it is the poem' (Vail & White 1991: 56). Since the praise-poetry form is common to all, descriptions from one society may in certain respects be applied to another. The historically established 'direct relationship to power' of izibongo has been crucial in making this genre useful in the struggle for a political 'conscientization' and unification of the 'black' people during apartheid (Sole 1987: 264). Looking back, however, it is striking to see that this has not always been adequately acknowledged by anthropology. Izibongo: Zulu praise-poems This edition published in 1968 by Clarendon P. in Oxford. Anthony Trevor Cope was professor of Zulu at the University of Natal.He edited Harry Camp Lugg's translation of Magema Magwaza Fuze's Abantu Abamnyama (1922) into English which was published by the University of Natal Press in 1979 as The Black People and Whence They Came.. The study concludes that the traditional Zulu woman felt depressed by this I think that for such a project a first necessity is careful, and empirically informed consideration of what 'consensus' means, and how it is, constituted in the specific African societies treated. The use of traditional oral forms in black South African literature. Due to this, the ruler within Zulu political tradition could be praised -and criticized. In Ritual History and Power, idern, pp. Edition Notes Bibliographical footnotes. This seems to hint at the essential difference between the performance of art and of ritual, and between art and ritual as such. The existing power relations are re-affirmed and the prevailing ideology is enforced. This, as aIready suggested above, may also be due to the fact that they are not conceivable without their social context of naming and identifying, thereby fulfulling a unifying function on various social levels, religious, historical and political (Gunner 1984). In regard to the complex tasks involved in interpreting and organizing public opinion, izibongohave to include criticism of the ruler when appropriate. Sole, K. 1987. Find more information about: ISBN: 0198151241 9780198151241: OCLC Number: 468421: Language Note: Parallel English and Zulu text, with English commentary. Since social structure is focused towards the central office, and the authoritative ruler is regarded as representing society as a whole, in times of crisis a licertce to rebel, to overthrow and replace a ruler, seems implicitly granted, because social malaise of any kind can always be linked to the 'bad rulership' of the person in power. In Literature and Society in South Africa, ed. I zibongo in politicial discourse to the present Today, in the post-apartheid era, the poetic task of izibongo, to strive for the correct and morally appreciable depiction of society in relation to its leading figures, continues and seems to be as central to public political discourse in South Africa as ever (cf. It is within a distinct form of expression that public social action 'against authority' is sanctioned, and an extraordinary liberty of expression granted to the person using it. Mafeje 1963). PART I . This interpretation, of course, strengthens the view of an interdependency of poetics, politics and history within izibongo,and leads back to the discussion of social context and relevance. Praise song African literature Britannica com. Londres, Oxford University Press, 1968, 230 p. (Oxford Library of African Literature). This is directly related to the standards of 'reasonable rulership' wlzich are socially dejined and publicly depicted and reforntulated in izibongo. - Volume 39 Issue 2 - E. J. Krige Forgotten men: Zulu bards and praising at the time of the Zulu kings. Parallel English and Zulu text, with English commentary. Standards of what social knowledge within society encompasses (truth) and how social action should proceed (justice) are implied in this kind of poetry as they are in society as a whole.15 Mapping social experience thus leads to a kind of 'topography of society' in praise poetry -to adapt Appadurai's phrase of 'topographies of the self' and apply it to a level of communal representation (cf. A performative approach to ritual. ZULU PRAISE-POEMS AND HISTORY Izibongo, Zulu Praise-poems. They constitute a dynamic tradition of reasonable discourse which has grown historically and evolved specifically within its cultural and social dynamics. 1-28. Various accounts indicate that izibon go are still valid and active mediators of social critique, and their influences on new poetic forms of protest are often mentioned. Kunene 1996: 212), this is definitely true. Cope's Izibongo: Zulu Praise-poems ( 1 968) - part of the Oxford University Press series on oral poetry from southern Africa - remains probably the most valuable text on Zulu izibongo. Thus, while it seems perfectly sound to emphasize that poetic licerrce grants the right of public criticism to everyone, and thus each mernber of society is i~z poterltial a 'conscience of the nation' (Mafeje 1967), it seems nevertheless right to treat those who do use the fonn and in this way become involved in political action as in reality more relevant persottificutiot~s of such a conscience than those who do not. actions alliteration amongst army attacked battle beast became Boers branch British brother brought cadence cattle caused Cetshwayo chief clan conclusion consisting construction couplets … Follow Blog via Email. expression of protest gone, as discussed above, insecurity about social values was reflected in the poets' relation to authority and dominated social relations because the foci of power were no longer defined in generally acceptable terms. Norbeck, E. 1963. For a hurnorous and illuminating exarnple of this, see A. Vilakazi (1962: ix). Introduction to The Ancestors and the Sacred Mountain. In their task of achieving an adequate depiction of society, apart from truth and justice, izibongo also transmit the powerful and the reasonable as defined by current social discourse. It is only when discussion starts out from within the internal dynamics of knowledge that the sensitive issue of power in the representation of social knowledge in other cultures can be analysed (cf. Izibongo: Zulu Praise-poems James Stuart, Anthony Trevor Cope No preview available - 1968. This is part of the various intertwining layers relevant to the aesthetics of the genre. Mandela or Buthelezi). Brown 1996). 1993 [1927]. To summarize: the concept of rebellion indirectly marks a basic principle of Zulu politics which I would like to call good or rather reasorzable rulersl7ip. These are most apparent in the izibongo of rulers whose dynamic regulative and critical functions will be analysed below.8. Ngcobo. 1977. The shift of the bards' allegiance that has been noted during these times of uncertain political power, from a 'traditional' allegiance to regional chiefs to the support of 'modern' political organizations and their leaders (Kashula 1993: 74), is in fact not a real shift but rather an indicator of the institutional redirection of political power, away from a culturally definable ruler of a certain social group and towards national figures, both under apartheid and in post-apartheid times.24 With a remarkable flexibility, the genre of izibongo maintains the functional continuity of its inherent regulative model of political mediation.
Farm Houses For Sale In Dfw, Luxury Ball Catch Rate, Coding Best Practices, Newspaper Clipping Generator, Soapstone Graphic Organizer For Rhetorical Analysis Pdf, Subway Korea Menu, Emacs Ide C++,