The density is the mass per volume; so that 171.2 g/8.0 cm3 = 21.4 g/cm3. The SI derived unit for density is the kilogram/cubic meter. Programmed mechanisms regulating the cloth beam to give a constant or variable speed independent of the tension of the fabric can be used to create a variety of woven fabric structures. It is important to note that for both types of needle point, needles should be changed regularly. Fibres and yarns are stiffened by the application of many forms of resin and the handle and some other properties of the finished fabric are usually altered. Feature: 1. Thicker air layers within the apparel system provide greater thermal insulation and moisture resistance. N. Mao, in Advances in Technical Nonwovens, 2016. Fabric weight is measured in grams per square meter or grams/m2 (also abbreviated as GSM). tonne/cubic centimetre Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury, in Principles of Textile Finishing, 2017. B. Purushothama, in A Practical Guide to Quality Management in Spinning, 2011. Ask Question Asked 5 years, 4 months ago. ton/gallon [short/U.K.] 3 by 27.68; for kg/m 3, multiply density in lb/in. grain/gallon [U.K.] [4] (b) A ski bag has a label which states that the fabric used to make the bag weighs 920g per rn2. Equilibrium needle temperature in a test run without sewing thread was lower than that obtained when subsequently stitching with a thread. It is a measurement that provides the base weight of the fabric, given as a value of grams per square metre. ounce/cubic yard Critical functions include thermal retention, ultraviolet light resistance, cooling capacity, sweat absorption, rapid drying, antibacterial properties and relaxation without fatigue. Sewing threads of bulked or textured yarns have both a reduced surface area for contact between thread and needle, and facilitate air movement through the needle eye. These effects have expanded the creative scope of novel art styles for jacquard fabrics, through woven structure. 10.6), thereby causing the fibres to rupture and reducing the seam strength significantly. Kothari and Sanyal10 stated that the three main areas that fiber and fabric developers focus on are functionality, comfort and aesthetic appeal. The new shirts were constructed from Sportwool, which boasts superior heat and moisture transfer properties that reduce the risk of post-exercise chill. For resin-impregnated dense nonwoven composites, the fabric porosity can be determined from measuring densities using liquid buoyancy or gas expansion porosimetry.13 Other methods of measuring porosity include small angle neutron, small angle X-ray scattering, and quantitative image analysis for total porosity. David J. Spencer, in Knitting Technology (Third Edition), 2001. Figure 6.25 (and also Appendix 3, section A3.4) shows the fabric effect of the variant design achieved by shifting the layers of the compound structure. The UPF increases with fabric density and thickness for similar construction and is dependent on porosity (UPF = 100/porosity). In Fig. 6.25, panel (a) shows the original fabric effect designed by the basic method of true-colour simulative fabric; (b) shows the fabric effect designed by slightly shifting individual layers of the compound structure; and (c) shows the results achieved by considerably shifting individual layers of the compound structure. ounce/gallon [U.S.] 6.25. Variant design by integrative method of changing layers. Valid units must be of the density type. 10.9). The cloth beam regulator of the Sulzer weaving machine has a versatile arrangement based on four interchangeable gear wheels to change fabric weft density. Finally, abrasion test results of fabric swatches suggested better values for plated single jersey and interlock piqué knitted fabrics in comparison to raised fleece knitted fabric structures. ounce/cubic foot g/cm3 to grain/cubic foot Further, it was noted that bursting resistance was influenced by the percentage of synthetic fibers in the blend, rather than the knitting structure. The values of fiber fraction listed in Table 12.1 clearly demonstrate how fiber fraction, FF, provides a unique structural feature that clearly segregates woven fabrics from knit fabrics. On the other hand, lightweight full dress satin apparel may be made from thin, lightweight and dense fabric using a fine yarn count. kilogram/cubic metre Product description: Fabric Density Meter,also as a kind of textile testing equipment, to determine the thread density of woven fabrics and wire meshes as well as the loop density of knitted fabrics. These attributes are largely determined by three main parameters: yarn count, yarn twist and the technology involved. The development and importance of high-performance sportswear and equipment in tennis, swimming and American football over recent years were studied by Susta.14 Lonsinger12 reviewed the trends in activewear including sportswear and sports-inspired clothing for casual wear in the US market. Lightweight fabrics are suitable for underwear and summer items such as dresses and shirts. ounce/gallon [U.K.] There are 1,044 suppliers who sells fabric density meter on, mainly located in Asia. Concentration solution unit conversion between kilogram/m^3 and gram/cubic centimeter, gram/cubic centimeter to kilogram/m^3 conversion in batch, kg/m3 g/cm3 conversion chart g/cm3 to megagram/cubic decimetre. g/cm3 to milligram/cubic metre In this direct method, both the bulk volume of a piece of porous fabric and the volume of the solid fibre materials are measured, and then the porosity can be calculated according to their definition. GSM is the metric measurement of the weight of a fabric, it is a critical parameter for any textile product. For some countries that use the metric system, the area is 1 cm2 and 2.54 is multiplied to convert it into the correct measurement of density. The UPF increases with fabric density and thickness for similar construction and is dependent on porosity (UPF = 100/porosity). The density of paint will depend on their ingredients in the paint. The value will be converted to all other units of the actual measure. slug/cubic yard apparel bottoms, working overalls, military uniforms, curtains and furnishing products) are likely to be stronger and stiffer than lighter, thinner and open fabrics (e.g. These needle points are designed for sewing on many different fabric types and seams. Click material name to copy complete line or click density value to copy only the value. Staple sewing threads also transport more cooling air to the needle, allowing the sewing speed to be increased by up to 10%, relative to that with comparable continuous filament thread, without adverse needle-temperature effects (Dorkin and Chamberlain, 1961; Laing and Webster, 1998). It is an index of the area covered with fibers with respect to that covered by air in the fabric plane. These effects are not accepted by the customer as it gives an ugly appearance. The term cover factor was introduced earlier in Chapter 10. Fabric density is a critical determinant of needle temperature. These are essentially derivatives of the basic attributes and they are normally estimated, not measured. 6.23. Your piece is 0.25 m² and 64 g, so 256 gsm or g/m². Since the full-colour effect of the compound structure is determined by the design methods of gamut weaves and the combination methods of single-layer fabric structure, the change of image applied has no effect on the structure of a full-colour non-backed compound fabric. Although the subjective sensations of WR and WR-PCM are not significantly different, WR-PCM is cooler and more comfortable than WR. 22.61 g/cm3. 10.8) and ball points (Fig. As each particular perception can be described in many words, depending on wearers, Wong et al. Density of inorganic sodium salts in water is plotted as function of wt%, mol/kg water and mol/l solution. Discoverer: Tennant, Smithson. The results of this study indicate that octadecane-containing microcapsules in water-repellent fabrics provide a cooling effect but sacrifice water resistance. In this example, the design method changed to one with the four colour layers of CMYK being gradually reversed from one layer to four layers (a reversed effect). Frankie Ng, Jiu Zhou, in Innovative Jacquard Textile Design Using Digital Technologies, 2013. A wide variety of fabric density meter options are available to you, such as electronic. megagram/cubic decimetre In wear trials, the mean skin temperature and microclimate temperature of subjects wearing activewear made with WR-PCM are lower than those made with WR. tonne/cubic metre How many grams per cubic centimeter ( g/cm3 ) are in 1 gram per cubic millimeter ( 1 g/mm3 )? In addition to the basic design illustrated in Fig. 6.21, interesting design variations based on the simulated effect produced by the basic design are introduced, which highlight the superiority of digital jacquard textile design under the layered-combination mode. The piece of fabric is 04m wide. megagram/millilitre To achieve a minimum UPF rating of 15, the cover factor of the textile must be greater than 93%, and a very small increase in CF leads to substantial improvements in the UPF of the textiles above 95% cover factor. Relatively sophisticated integrative fabric effects can be further realised by manipulating these 32 effects. The unit of measurement can be expressed in different ways (g/cm3, kg/m3, etc.) (a) Layers used; (b) final effects. Although many countries use the metric system, the density is … 1 kilogram/cubic meter is equal to 0.001 g/cm3, or 1.0E-6 kg/cm3. The above expression yields a fraction which, if multiplied by 100, will roughly yield the percentage of fiber content in the fabric structure. The weight may affect density, thickness and many physical properties of the fabric, such as strength. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Fabric specific volume is an index of bulkiness or yarn compactness in the fabric in a three-dimension geometry expressed by the equation: where t is fabric thickness (m) and W is fabric weigh (g m−2). Since the most probable time for long-term solar exposure is in the summer, the most likely candidates for UV-protective finishes are lightweight woven and knitted fabrics intended for producing shirts, blouses, T-shirts, swimwear, beachwear, sportswear and the like. ounce/cubic yard [troy] where M is mass per unit area (g/m 2) of the fabric, h is the thickness (mm) of the fabric and ρ is the relative density of the fiber/polymer (g/cm 3).The term ‘packing factor’ provides a relative index of the total porosity of a textile structure. As can be seen in Table 12.1, knit structures are generally characterized by significantly higher specific volume (more fluffiness) than woven fabrics. WR is the water-repellent fabric without PCM. Made for you with much by CalculatePlus. Growing interest in sporting activities and the emergence of new sports has stimulated a demand for textiles that perform functions which are helpful to participants.10 Sportswear needs to fulfil four main functions: weather protection, thermal insulation, vapor permeability and stretch. Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material that can be melt-processed into fibers, films, or shapes. g/cm3 to ton/gallon [short/U.K.] ounce/gallon [troy/U.S.] This effective thickness should be equal to the thickness of an equivalent preconsolidated material and it will be used to calculate the cross-sectional area of the sample for the shear stress calculations in the The aim of this chapter is to: study the thermal and moisture transport properties of fabrics used to make the selected tennis wear; investigate the influence of time and type of tennis wear on human subjective perception of various sensations through a series of wear trials; study the distribution of individual sensation pairs at different time periods; identify the dimension of clothing comfort by using statistical factor analysis; develop a prediction model for clothing comfort on the basis of different sensory factors. Mathematically, density is … G/cm3 is a measure of density. When softness under lateral compression (hand or finger pressing against fabric surface) is considered, knit fabrics are likely to offer softer structure by virtue of their high thickness and low density combinations in comparison with those of woven fabrics. grain/cubic foot This may not be clear in the description of the products. Thick rib structures of hemp and linen can allow 10.52–12.70% and 9.03–11.47% of UV A and UV B, respectively. tonne/millilitre However, despite all of this available research, the comfort dimensions in female tennis wear have not been reported. When choosing a density mirror, it is necessary to pay attention to what density range the fabric is usually analyzed in. Needle heat generated during stitching depends on fabric-needle surface characteristics, fabric frictional characteristics, and fabric tightness (Laing and Webster, 1998). Fabrics made with fibers of different densities will have difference in fabric appearance, flexibility, air permeability and cover. The density of a plastic sample may change due to change in crystallinity, loss of plasticizers, absorption of solvent, etc. Iridium. A needle carrying thread, but without interacting with any fabric, heats by about 50 °C when running at high speed (Hurt and Tyler, 1971, 1972b; Laing and Webster, 1998). pound/circular mil foot With continuous filaments, there is a greater area of contact between the thread and needle, and in addition less air is carried along with the thread on account of its smooth surface. The influence of both effects is greatest at the eye of the needle. How much is g/cm3 to g/ml? (a) Layers used; (b) final effects. Analysis of the properties of the cloth beam regulator contributes to an understanding of the mechanisms for fabric take-up and for winding the woven fabric on the cloth roller. The mass density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3 (0.0975 lb/in3), which is about 1/3 of that of steel (7.83 g/cm3), copper (8.93 g/cm3) or brass (8.53 g/cm3). The strain on the yarns increases if the needle is damaged (Fig. gram/cubic metre The key technical parameters of the fabric are listed in Table 6.4. megagram/cubic centimetre Factors to consider when choosing a needle are: The most important aspect of needle design is the needle point because it has to penetrate the fabric without causing any damage to the material. The amount of water wicked from one layer to another depends on pore sizes and their corresponding volumes. The answer is 1000. This is called density (S.G) can be written as g/cm3. Ceken4 investigated certain physical properties of five different types of circular knitted fabrics used for active sportswear. This embodies the merits of the layered-combination design mode and the capability for the designer to produce digital jacquard fabrics with picturesque effects that would otherwise be impossible to achieve using the traditional plane design mode. Furthermore, brand influenced the determination of preferred garments as subjects changed their mind after the garment brand was revealed. Chung and Cho5 aimed to develop a thermally adaptable, vapor-permeable water-repellent fabric. As a result, a total of 16 colour effects were created within one motif. A cloth cover does not consider the flatness of the yarns, which might result in a higher cloth cover than the calculated value. milligram/litre A UPF with fabric weight and thickness shows better correlation than cloth cover. Wong, ... Y.I. Free online Density conversion. These fabrics have different knitting structures and material blend ratios. The invention also provides a process for producing the lofty nonwoven web. kilogram/millilitre Later on, Wong et al.18 applied neural networks to predict clothing comfort in tight-fit garments. Thiry15 provides an overview of apparel comfort issues including the effect of the environment, available test methods, fabric hand, moisture management, thermal management and psychological comfort. ton/cubic yard [long] An interesting fabric effect created by such a method is shown in Fig. 6.24 and in Appendix 3, section A3.3. Specific Gravity (SG) is defined as the ratio of density of the material to the density of water (1 g/cm3) at a specified temperature. ton/cubic foot [short] In addition to the variation in design realised by changing the deployment of a layered compound structure in a fixed position, the fabric effect produced by the basic design method of true-colour simulative effect can also be altered by shifting individual layers of the compound structure. This free density calculator determines any of the three variables in the density equation given the other two. g/cm3 to ounce/cubic foot [troy] Ir. ton/gallon [short/U.S.] Woven fabrics usually have a higher cover factor than knits due to the type of construction. The relative order of importance of various fabric parameters for the UV protection is given by the percentage cover > fibre type > fabric thickness. 3 studied the thermal properties of elastic fibers including spandex, which are mainly used in sportswear. - be aware that for many of the products listed below there is a difference between "bulk density" and actual "solid or material density". gram/cubic centimetre If the count is coarse, we need more yarn to knit the garments, and hence, it is a loss to the customer. Heat is also generated by the thread passing rapidly through the eye of the needle and against machine parts. ton/cubic foot [long] nanogram/litre A high correlation exists between the UPF and the fabric porosity but is also influenced by the type of fibres. grain/cubic yard g/cm3 to tonne/millilitre Warp knitted nets have knot-free joints giving greater strength and lower weights; extremely open fabric uses very little yarn; fabric density is adjustable and can be adjusted to the requirements of sunlight. Li, in Clothing Biosensory Engineering, 2006. pound/gallon [U.K.] A high correlation exists between the UPF and the fabric porosity but is also influenced by the type of fibres. For Woven Fabric: Picks per inch : The number of weft thread per inch is called picks per inch. Density of water. tent awnings; normal seams in shirt stitching (shirt collars, cuffs). pound/gallon [U.S.] Given the fact that fabric thickness is highly sensitive to the pressure applied on the fabric during testing, it is important to specify whether the fabric thickness was measured under a relaxed and natural state or under some level of lateral pressure. 1 kilogram/cubic meter is equal to 0.001 g/cm3. slug/gallon [U.K.] As indicated in Chapter 10, the basic structural attributes of a certain fabric construction (weave or knit pattern) are fabric thickness, fabric weight and fabric density (or fabric count). They are dimensionally stable, slip-resistant, and do not require a stabilising finish. It was observed that interlock piqué knitted fabrics have higher air-permeability values in comparison to fleece knitted fabrics and double face jersey fabrics. In their study, they compared two types of water-repellent fabrics. Human perception of clothing comfort is an interaction between physical, physiological and psychological factors with the surrounding environment when wearing a garment. Therefore fabrics with the maximum number of yarns in warp and weft give high UPFs. Fabric density helps explain the thickness of textile products. Table 6.4. Result shows that cotton’s pre-eminence in the field was being challenged by synthetic fibre and high-performance fabrics. Results showed that increasing the environmental temperature decreased the comfort of the woolen fabrics due to the increased prickly feel, and it was observed that increasing the wool quality number decreased the level of prickle from the forearm test. It is important to note that density varies with temperature. As shown in the density mirror, its reading range is 45-160 bars/inch. gram/millilitre Anthony S.W. Advanced ceramics have densities that vary between 2.5 g/cm3 and approximately 6 g/cm3, depending on the family of ceramics. Values of FF for woven fabrics ranged from 22 to 28%, while those for knit fabrics ranged from 13 to 16%. grain/gallon [U.S.] Ishtiaque9 stated that the comfort of athletic apparel depends on optimizing interactions between fiber type; spinning, weaving or knitting parameters; fabric density and weight; finishing; fit; and manufacture. 3 by 1728; for g/cm 3, multiply density in lb/in. Warp knitting technology is more versatile than any other fabric producing technique for manufacturing nets. The reference substance for liquids is nearly always water. The linear density of a fiber is commonly measured in units of denier or tex The density, also called volumic mass or mass density, is the mass per unit volume and has ρ as its symbol. ton/cubic inch [short] Different sizes and shapes of net openings can be produced. Technical specification of design variation of colourful simulative fabric. We assume you are converting between gram/cubic centimetre and kilogram/cubic centimetre. plain and satin). Other structural attributes that can have a direct impact on the performance of traditional fibrous products include2 cover factor, fabric specific volume and fiber fraction. G. Thilagavathi, S. Viju, in Process Control in Textile Manufacturing, 2013. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 77. micro fabrics and silk; heavy woven materials, e.g. The design method was to reduce the colour layer gradually from four layers of CMYK (the true colour effect) to none (a no colour layer). Among these and other studies of psychological perception of clothing comfort, a list of sensory descriptors such as clammy, damp, wet, prickle, scratchy, sticky and tight were used to describe clothing comfort. Sharp-point needles (Fig. 11.18.3 Fabric dependence. The type of needle chosen is very much dependent on the type of fabric being sewn. gram/litre 6.22. In the development of traditional fibrous products, the levels of structural attributes should be optimized in view of required levels of key performance characteristics such as durability and comfort. Additionally, based on the design results of the two creations shown in Fig. 6.22 and Fig. 6.23, it is possible to create a design by means of integrating the 32 fabric effects. For example, woven fabrics with high cover factor and knitted fabric constructed of short stitches will be associated with elevated needle temperatures (Hurt and Tyler, 1971, 1972b; Laing and Webster, 1998). ton/cubic inch [long] For knit fabrics, thickness and weight can be independent, especially considering the variety of different knit patterns. nanogram/millilitre, g/cm3 to kilogram/cubic millimetre This is largely true for woven fabrics in which thicker fabrics are also heavier and denser than thinner fabrics (e.g. Figure 6.22 shows the real fabric effect based on the colourful simulative effect design. By doing so, 16 colour effects within one layout also were created. This property allows the skin to cool more quickly during exercise and plays a crucial role in maintaining wearer comfort.1 Gupta and Gupta7 demonstrated a huge variety of functional properties which have proven useful to both professional athletes and leisure sports participants, including superlightweight, high tenacity and stretchability, body heat retention, cooling capacity, sweat absorption, quick drying, vapor permeability and anti-bacterial action. kilogram/cubic millimetre This is simple to use online converter of weights and measures. It has six stitch-forming bars (4 ground, 2 selvedge, and 2 inlay guide bars). For example, the data in Table 12.1 indicate that interlock, which is thicker than piqué fabric is also lighter, despite being denser. Different combinations of values of these parameters can result in different values of fabric structural attributes as demonstrated in Table 12.1. tonne/litre ton/gallon [long/U.K.] The following factors need to be taken into account in order to help avoid this problem: use a needle with the smallest diameter possible for the fabric and seam being sewn; adapt the opening of the needle hole on the sewing plate to fit the needle size; use a sewing thread with the correct diameter for the needle eye; use the correct needle point for the type of fabric you are sewing; consider whether the type of seam that you are using to construct the garment could be changed or use multiple seaming in order to divide the strain; shank – the section that fits into the needle bar of the machine; long groove – the grooves that are channelled into the blade are designed as a protective channel for the sewing thread; short groove – some needle types have a short groove that runs from the scarf of the needle up to the shoulder (Fig. Valeriy V. Choogin, ... Elena V. Chepelyuk, in Mechanisms of Flat Weaving Technology, 2013. The digital image selected for design creation is the same as that of the basic design. You can use this form to select from known units: Convert g/cm3 to Given the basic design of colourful simulative fabric, the variant design can be made through a change in the layered-combination fabric structure. The company claimed that Sportwool can hold up to 30% of its own weight in moisture vapor before it feels wet or clammy to the touch. It is important to specify temperature for both the sample and reference. pound/cubic yard It was approached through the employment of weft threads of CMYK colours. apparel tops, underwear, some sportswear and some bed sheets). 22.65 g/cm3. ton/cubic yard [short] The measurement of porosity can be obtained by the ratio of the fabric density and the fibre density (see Eq. The principles of clothing physiology, which is the interaction between the human body and its clothing system, with particular reference to the interplay between the body, climate and clothing, were discussed by Rupp.13 The factors that govern the physiological processes involved when clothing is being worn, including insulation, vapor transmission and convection and ventilation, were also described.13 Bardhan and Sule2 stated that protection, comfort and shape retention are the principal parameters in sportswear and leisurewear design.
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